Friday, December 11, 2009

Nursing Research Process in a Nutshell

  • Identification/formulation of research
    • problem anything that requires solution thru scientific investigation. -
    • Sources of problem :
§ – concepts (Ca, PTB, MI)
§ – literature, essays, books, journals
§ – Issues
§ E – experience
§ N – Nursing problems
§ T – theories

    • Characteristics of a research problem
§ – general applicability and use
§ Re – Researchable
§ F – Feasible and measurable
§ F – actors of a feasible research :
· time, money, experience of the researcher, instruments, population
§ I – importance to nursing profession
§ N – novelty/originality
· Plagiarism/illegal replication – unauthorized use of another’s literary work without any consent or permission
§ – significance to nursing

    • 2 types of research according to use
§ basic/pure research
· only the research benefits the research
· It is only for your personal necessity
· Answers your own question

§ Applied research
· problem solving
· Solving the problems of the patient.

    • Variable – subject to change
      • Kinds of variable
· Independent variable
o use this to stimulate a target population

· Dependent variable/Effectual variable
o results of the effects of the study

· Intervening Variable
o Comes between dependent and independent

o Example: orghanism variable, internal factor, sex, gender, color

· Extraneous Variable
o External infuences that can be changed

o Example: citizenship, educational status

· Dichotomous Variable
o 2 choices/ 2 results
o Example: Male/ Female

· Polychotomous Variable
o Multiple choices
o Example: Preferred foods – Chinese, Japanese, American. . . .

“A comparative Study in the Income of Filipino Nurses Employed in P.G.H. and N.Y.G.H.”

Independent variable : PGH and NYGH (place of work)
Target population : Filipino nurses
Dependent variable : income

1. Identify the Problem

2. Purpose – objective using SMART (Systematic, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time Bounded)

3. Define Terms
a. Conceptual Definition – dictionary definition
b. Operational Definition – defined in accordance on how the researcher used the word

4. Revision of Terms

· Review of related literature
o Purposes :
§ to have an update regarding your topic
§ to have a basis of theoretical and conceptual framework

o Main sources of literatures

§ Conceptual
· Formulated
· Authors
· Can be sold
· Books – general use

§ Research
· Researcher
· Research works only
· Future research purpose only

· Formulation of conceptual and theoretical framework
    • THEORY – relationship between concepts
      • diagrammatic and structural presentation of the problem hypothesis
    • Paradigm
      • actual structural presentation of your conceptual framework

  • Formulating hypothesis
    • 5 types of hypothesis
§ Null/statistical hypothesis
· shows no relationship or difference between an independent variable and dependent variable.
· ID = DV
· Eg. “There is no difference regarding professional opportunities of Filipino Nurses working in the Philippines from those working in USA.”

§ Simple/Operational hypothesis/Alternative hypothesis
· this shows relationship between a single independent variable from single dependent variable.
· Eg. “Filipinos Nurses working in USA has more professional opportunities than those working in the Philippines.

§ Complex hypothesis
· this shows a relationship between two or more independent variable from two or more dependent variable.
· Eg. “Filipino nurses who worked for 5yrs and passed the CGFNS, TORFL, TSE, NCLEX has greater opportunities in NY as compared to those inManila

§ Directional hypothesis
· specifies the direction of the relationship between variables
· Eg. “Filipino Nurses working in the USA has more professional opportunities than those working in the Phils.”

§ Non-directional
· only predicts the relationship, but has no specific direction between variables.
· Eg. “There is a big difference between a Filipino Nurses working in USA than those working in the Phils.”

  • Selecting research design
o Systematic controlled plan for finding the answer to a problem
o Roadmap, blueprint of the study
o Should have a proper resign design
o If improper research design, there will be improper collection of data

    • Purpose : key or tool for proper collection of data
    • Types
      • According to Application
        • Basic/ Pure
          • For personal knowledge, curiosity
        • Applied
          • Based on problem solving approach

      • According to Methods
        • Experimental
          • performing active manipulation, observe and record the result.

          • Types of Experimental Reseach
§ control
· divide grp into 2.
· Group a – control/comparison grp – will use the same soap everyday
· Group b – experimental grp – those who will use the sample soap
§ randomization
· using sample by chance.
· Choose randomly to avoid redundancy of result
§ Manipulation
· Performing intervention
§ Validation
· comparison of the effects
§ Quasi-experimental
· false experiment.
· No control sample.

        • Non-experimental
o No manipulation is done. Only observation, describe and record down the result.
o Types of non-experimental research design base on time element
§ Retrospective (Ex Post Facto)
· Getting actual experience
· Studies a group of people after its occurrence, experience or facts.
· Experience of people in the past
§ Descriptive
· Observe, describe & record.
· Study of current events.
§ Prospective
· Study of research about future occurrence or future events.
§ Historical
· Past that is written, documented, published and recorded
· Primary Data
o Observe
o 1st hand information
o person himself
· Secondary Data
o 2nd Hand Information
· About the past using records, journals, books.
· Study of the dead people thru his written materials, facts

o according to data
§ quantitative
· data base on numerical interpretation, datas that are measurable, using your senses, data that are observable.
§ qualitative
· subjective data, feelings, perception, beliefs, culture, attitude

o Survey Research Design
§ Group
· Small
· Face to face
· Large – not good result
§ Methods
· Mailed survey
· Face to face
· Telephone survey

o According to Time Orientation
§ Cross Sectional
· Applicable to 2 or more identical group
· Short term
· For comparison
§ Longitudinal
· 1 group only
· with initial and follow up survey
· long term study
· for developmental study

  • Selecting your population and samples
    • sample
      • part of population, data is collected.
      • The recipient of the experimental treatment in experimental design or the individuals to be observed in a non-experimental design

    • Types of sampling
      • Probability - equal presentation/ chances in the population.
        • Simple random technique
          • Used a single/identical group.
          • Fish bowl technique
        • Stratified random sampling
          • You will first going to create a sub population from the whole population before doing randomization.
          • One population, you divide it.
        • Cluster random sampling
          • You will first create a sub area in a population before doing the randomization. In one population, you make it smaller
        • Systematic random sampling
          • choosing a sample every nth name in the population.
          • Multiple of 100 names
          • Sampling frame – list of names appearing as your population
      • Non-probability sampling – you are not choosing by chance.
        • Accidental/ convenience sampling
          • Base on the accessibility/availability of your sample.
          • Kung sino pinakamalapit syo, yun ang kukunin mo.
        • Purposive/judgmental sampling
          • base on the common knowledge or popular knowledge.
        • Snow-ball sampling
          • get sampling base on last referral
        • Quota Sampling
          • Setting criteria and getting samples fitting the criteria

  • Conducting pilot studies

  • Collecting data
    • types :
      • questionnaires – use of pen and paper method
        • dichotomous – divided into two. Eg. true orfalse. Yes or no
        • rating scale – poor 1, good 2, better 3, best 4
        • multiple choice
      • Interview – use of oral method of collection of data. Use of active listening
        • Structured – with checklist, formal talk, list of question
        • Unstructured – informal talk, no pattern, anything goes
      • records – pre existing data
      • observation – use of ocular method using your senses
        • participant observation
        • non-participant observation
        • Problems :
          • Hawthorne’s effects
            • The data you get from your sample is not accurate.
            • The sample has a problem
            • Solution : double blind research – they should not be conscious that they are being studied
          • Halo effect
            • The researcher has a problem.
            • He is manipulating the data collection.
            • It is affected by special feelings/treatment between the researcher and the sample.
  • Analysis of Data
    • part of research when the researcher is forming a body of knowledge out of data collected for the purpose of affirming or denying your hypothesis
    • Methods
      • Nominal method
        • get data by means of categories.
        • eg. male, female, income
      • Ordinal method – base on rank eg. mild, moderate, severe
      • Interval
        • base on the distance between 2 numerical values
        • eg. BP – 150/100 – 120/80, wt, circumference, ht
      • ratio – 3:10 children are malnourish

  • Interpretation of Data
    • 2 Methods
      • quantitative method – base on numerical or graphical standards
      • qualitative method – use of narrative words

  • Communicating your conclusion
    • Explaining the results of your work to the public
    • Conclusion – final answer to your research
    • Recommendation – suggestion to others
    • Dissemination of Information
      • Methods :
        • thesis/book – written form
        • symposia/symposium – oral presentation
        • publish – a lot will be able to read your research

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